The coastal climate, the geolithological nature of the terrain (prevalently clay and sandy) and
a rural economy have determined the features of the landscape.
The elevated hills in the area are lush with forests and woodlands of copses and a wide variety of oak trees (i.e. Berignone-Tatti forest). Poplar trees which favour humidity grow by the rivers while the cypress trees, a typical feature of the Tuscan landscape, flank the country lanes or stand dotted in isolation or in small groups.
Arable land is interspersed with olive groves and vineyards although the latter are usually
located close to the farmhouses and small villages.
The arenaceous ridge of Volterra endowed with an abundant water supply encourages the growth of Holm oak,oak, plane and extensive chestnut groves especially in the southern valleys.
The woodlands and forests abound with wild boar, foxes and a wide variety of deer.

Monterufoli ponies
A wild orchid